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helloworld.ru

Kaapa

                      1. paee aapo.

   Kaapa coep eec popoeccop, oop ocpae
aoe  aae  a  a    ae  ca-o    op A pocxe
epeca c epepe, pacooeo a cceo ae. Ca-o o
ooaoe  co,  ae  7  o  oopoo  peca  e-
ao oep,  pcoe ao ae.  Ha cex aax, poe
AT,  cap   oa oop o o,  a  aa aaa ( = 1,
o aa)  ocooea ( = 0,  o ocooe- ).  Hapep,
7- ca-o a B - 48,   110000  oo ccee. Koa
a aa aaec, o  op A ocaec o 10110000, a oa ee
oc  -  o  00110000.  Ta opao,  aoe aae a a
a pecppec  pocxee 8255.   a pa pocxea  8255
ae  oepee  popoeccop aap.  AT paoae eoo
o-po,  oca   oox  cax  o    o  e  ca-o,  o
peap eo oo F0H, oa aa ocaec.
   Koa ca-o  aec    op  A,   o   aec   pepae
aap  (INT  9).  poeccop  oeao  pepaae co pao 
oe poep,  aap ca-o.  Koa ocae  o  o
a  ca  epeae,  o eee caca acaec 
a.  Bo cex ocax cax ca-o pac-  oppec    o
coa,  p  co,  o  o  oaec  p  aa-    a (
poo cae,  ca-o opacaec).  Koeo, poepa caaa
opeee  cao  a ca  epeaee,  o pao
o o o (o "a"  "A"?).  oce  oo  ee  o
oeaec    ep  aap,  oop  ec  oac  a,
cocoo ao o 15 o- x coo,  oa popaa  co
aa, o opaoa x. Ha pc. 3-1 oaa , oop poxo
aae a a epe e, a oac  Ba popa.
   eec a a oo coo, o ASCII  pacpee o. Ko
ASCII - o ae ca,  oope cooec pac- peo aop
oo ASCII  IBM PC.   IBM PC o aop ae oe co
e a, a ae p ceax   coo ceopa.
ASCII o a ae 32 pax oa, oope oo co-
c  epea oa epep cpoca,  a e oc  a
co  a pae;  oao a  x ee cooec co,
oop  oe    ee  a  ce,  c  cooae   po
apeca  ceo  a.  (Cpo-  o  oop,  oo  epe 128
coo c aco co- a ASCII,  a a  ASCII  -  o
apeapa o Aepac caap o  oea opae. Ho
popac oo oop o oax ASCII,  o o x o px
ce.  Hapep, "ASCII 8" oocc  ae "Backspace",  o pe
a "8" - o pa, oopo cooece ASCII 56).
   Bopo aop   oo,   pacpee   o,  pcoe  aa  
oa a,  oope e e pecaeo x coa ASCII,
a  a  oae  a    oa  c  ae  Alt.
Pacpee o e  2 aa,  pe ep a cea  ASCII
0.  Bopo  a  - oep pacpeoo oa,  cco oopx pee 
[3.3.5].  Hapep,  o  0:30  pecae  Alt-A.   Haa   o
ooe   popae  pae    a  o  aop  ASCII  
pacpeo aop.
   eec  ecoo  oa a, oope o  ce-
ae   e eepp ca-o.   oa -
a ,   , c   AT
  
PCjr.   ce po  apaee peopeee pe-

                                     - 2 -
aa [3.3.2]. Bce ocae  aa a o eppepo-
ac  Bae popao  ec o e ceaoe aaee,
cae c pcop eo, o Baa  popaa oa coepa
o, oecea ocee oo ea.
   K cac oepaoa ccea peocae pae  poe-
p  e oo  epa  aap, a cpeca 
oe cpa eo cpo.  oco  poep  oo
ea paec ce, o  B  oee  oea, o paec
eccceo ca co poep opao oa c aap 
oo  ao ae eec oe ao pepo popapoa-
 a o poe. Oao coepc ocee opoca o o,
a epepopapoa pepae aap.

                     2. Oca epa aap.

   popaa oa  oc ep aap,  epe e,  a a
apoc a o,  ca e ca ocopoe aa a, oope
o  o pee aoc  epe. ep oe aaa o 15
aa a a,  eaco o oo,  c  o  ooa
oa ASCII  xa pacpe oa. Ta opao, ep
oe oec a aa a  aoo  aa  a  a.  
ooax  oo ep a coep o ASCII,  a opo - ca-o
a.   pacpex oo ep a coep ASCII 0,  a opo
oep pacpeoo oa. o o oo coaae co ca-oo a-
, o e cea, oco eoope a o opo- ac c
aa ca  eepa pax oo.
   ep cpoe  a  eca  oepe,  oop  aa   ae
epo  FIFO  (ep  oe  -  ep  e).  Ka   o ep o
aae  epep  oac  apeco  a.  Oao   e   eec
opeeeo  e  a,  oopa xpa "aao cpo"  epe.
Beco oo a  aae  xpa  o  oo    xoca  cpo
coo,  axoec  epe  e oe.  Hoe aa a
aacac  ox,  cex a xoco ( oee  capx  apecax
a)   cooeceo ooec aa- e xoca epa.  oce
oo,  a  pacxooao  ce  epoe  pocpaco,  oe  co
pooa  cac,  aa  c  caoo  aaa  epo oac;
oo oo ca,  oa ooa cpo  epe ee  o
apec, e xoc. oce oo a ep aoe, oe oe co
oppc,  p  o  pepae  aap  ae  o   epe
a.
   B o pe a aae a oo caoe a ep e-  e
co,  aae  a  xoc  caoe  a  o  a  oc- e
ee coo.  Koa oa aae pa,  o ep  c.  o
pape  o  15  coo  peec  16- ca o,  2 aa
oopo cea coepa o opaa  ape  (ASCII  13)    ca-o
a   ,   pa  28.  a  ca  o  eocpeceo
peece ooe cpo  coo.  32  aa  epa  aac  c
apeca  0040:001E.  aae  a oo  xoc pacooe o apeca
0040:001A  0040:001C,  cooeceo.  Xo o aae oeeo  2
aa,  coec oo a a.  ae aaee ec
o 30 o 60,  o cooece o   oac  ax  BIOS.  
oc  epa ao poco cao aee e 0040:001A pa
ae e 0040:001C.
   Oe, o  popaa ee oooc ca co  ep,
aepa  cpo  coo  opaa  ape    cooeceo  e
ae  aaee.  Ec  o  poea  pa  opao  epe
aepee popa,  o p opae pae  MS DOS  co
 ca  oe  aoaec apea pa popaa.


                                     - 3 -
   Cpe poe.

    0C  pepa  21H  oe        oa  c
aap 1,  6,  7,  8  A (ocax  o ae),  o  epe  
c ep aap. Hao poco oec oep  oa  AL
( o pepe - 1):

;---oca epa epe oae aa a
   MOV  AH,0CH    ;pae  DOS 0CH
   MOV  AL,1      ;pae  oa coa
   INT  21H       ;c ep, e oa

   H poe.

   Ka     pepe cooo po eae aee aae a xoc
pa ae aae a oo.   ea   pepa
aap apeae pepa a pe oa aae:

;---paae ae aaee a oo  xoc
   CLI                   ;apeae pepa
   SUB  AX,AX            ;oe pecp
   MOV  ES,AX            ;oao cee - c aaa a
   MOV  AL,ES:[41AH]     ;epe aae a oo epa
   MOV  ES:[41CH],AL     ;ocae eo  aae xoca
   STI                   ;papeae pepa

   3. poepa coo  epe.

   B oee poep   o c aap, e a co
 epa aap.  ep  coe  a  aae, oope
oea oo  xoc oepe coo, axoxc  epe  
e oe. Koa  ae  x  aaee pa, o ep
c.   Hao poco cpa coepoe ee a 0040:001A  
0040:001C.  (He poco poep co, axoc  ooe
oepe, oco ep opaoa  e eco oepe 
o ee oo ocoo eec [3.1.1].)


   Cpe poe.

    0BH  pepa  21H opaae aee 0FFH  pecpe AL,
oa ep aap coep o  oee coo   aee  0,
oa ep c:

;---poepa a coa  epe
   MOV  AH,0BH           ;oep 
   INT  21H              ;ae pepae 21H
   CMP  AL,0FFH          ;cpaae c 0FFH
   JE   GET_KEYSTROKE    ;epexo ec ep e c

    1  pepa BIOS 16H peocae  e oooc,  o,
poe  oo,  oaae  ao  co    epe.  a      (ZF)
cpacaec, ec ep c,  caaaec, ec  epe eec
co. B ocee cae o coa, axoeoc  ooe epa,
oeaec   AX,  o co  epa e aec.  B AL opaaec
o  coa    ooax  coo  ASCII,  ae  ASCII  0   
pacpex oo,  oa oep oa -  AH.

;---poepe ae coa  epe

                                     - 4 -
   MOV  AH,1             ;oep 
   INT  16H              ;poepa a coa
   JZ   NO_CHARACTER     ;epexo ec ZF = 1
;---eec co - cop ao
   CMP  AL,0             ;o pacpe o?
   JE   EXTENDED_CODE    ;ec a, o a p e

   H poe.

   Ka   pepe cooo po poco cpaae aae:

;---cpaae aae a oo  xoc
   MOV  AX,0           ;caaae oao cee
   MOV  ES,AX          ;a aao a
   MOV  AL,ES:[41AH]   ;epe o aae
   MOV  AH,ES:[41CH]   ;epe po aae
   CMP  AH,AL          ;cpaae x
   JNE  GET_KEYSTROKE  ;ec epa, o  poepe oa

          4. Oa o coa  e o eo a pa.

   Oo oe  co oc a pa,  o o o,  o
aeaao.  Ho oa aoaecoe xo  a  pae  eea-  eo.
Hapep,  op  a  e o aa a.  oa ao caaa
poep  oe  co  a  o  epe  oo  a  pa.  B
acoc,  a  popaa,  opaaaa pacpee o,  oa
ea aoaecoo xa,  a a p o ep a x  oo
(ASCII 0) e oc a pa, ca poe e coa.

   Cpe poe.

    7    8  pepa  21H  oa oa coa,  ec ep
aap c,  a oa o oec,  o e oc a pa. p
o   8 opeee Ctrl-Break ( pe poep opao
Ctrl-Break[3.2.8]),  a  7 e peape a eo.  B oox cax
co  opaaec    AL.  Koa  AL  coep  ASCII 0,  o oe
pacpe o.  oope pepae     AL  oc  opo  a
pacpeoo oa.

;---oae ee co
      MOV  AH,7           ;oep 
      INT  21H            ;oae o coa
      CMP  AL,0           ;poepa a pacpe o
      JE   EXTENDED_CODE  ;ec a, o a oco poep
       .                  ;ae, o coa  AL

;---poepa opao pacpex oo
EXTENDED_CODE:  INT  21H        ;epe opo a oa
                CMP  AL,75      ;poepe a "cpe-eo"
                JNE  C_R        ;ec e, o ce. poepa
                JMP  CURSOR_LEFT;ec a, o a poep
C_R:            CMP  AL,77      ;cpaae ae  ..

   BIOS oeceae    poep,    oopa   peocae   e   e
oooc,  o   MS DOS.  oece 0  AH   oe  pe-
pae  16H.    oae oa coa  opaae eo  AL.  B
o cae  pacpee o opaaac  a  oo  pepa-  e.
Ec    AL coepc 0,  o  AH e coepac oep pacpeoo
oa. p o e opaaaec Ctrl-Break. ;---e aa a

                                     - 5 -
   MOV  AH,0       ;oep  oa oa
   INT  16H        ;oae ee o
   CMP  AL,0       ;poepa a pacpe o
   JE   EXTENDED_CODE   ;ec a, o a ce. poep
    .                   ;ae co  AL

;---poepa opao pacpeoo oa
EXTENDED_CODE:  CMP  AH,75   ;epe pacpe o  AH
                             ; ..
              5. Oae aa a  xo a pa.

   p oe ax  eca,  xo ox coo oo aec a
pa. p o ae co a opa ape  ao epeoc
 cooece epeee pcopa,  a  e  opaac  a  ASCII
co    x  oo.  Baa xa poc- xo  o o,  e
peapeo  caoe pcop  ec aoaec  epeocc
a ce cpo p oce-  oa ee.  epeoc a ce-
 cpo e pee ce- aoo oa, oco co oeac
  ce  o epo a ce,  oopa pecae 
ce o  cpo, a ce 25 cpo ce.

   Cpe poe.

    1  pepa  21H  oae  oa   coa,   ec   ep
aap  c,  a  ae  o  eo  a  pa   e o
pcopa. Opaaaec Ctrl-Break, oo oe oc poepa
opao Ctrl-Break.  Bee co opa- aec  AL.  p oe
pacpeoo oa AL coep ASCII 0.  oe  AL opoo aa
pacpeoo  oa ao oop pepae.  ;---oee eeoo
coa
   MOV  AH,1           ;oep 
   INT  21H            ;oae aa a
   CMP  AL,0           ;pacpe o?
   JE   EXTENDED_CODE  ;ec a, o a ce. poep
    .                  ;ae co axoc  AL

;---poepa opao pacpex oo
      INT  21H            ;oae  AL oep oa
      CMP  AL,77          ;poepa a "pcop-pao"
      JNE  C_R            ;ec e, poepa ceeo
      JMP  CURSOR_RIGHT   ;ec a, o a poep
C_R:  CMP  AL,75          ;...  ..

   a  ooc oppe a  .  Kaa  a
eppepec opao. Kaa ao cae pcop a o o-
 eo,  o co, axoc  o o e cpaec. Kaa
  ae  epeeee  pcopa  ep o ee cpo
(e aoaecoo epeoa cpo).

                    6. pe coa e oa.

   Heoope popa,  paoae    peao   pee   e   o
ocaaac  a aa a; o pa co  epa
aap oo    e  oe,  oa  o  oo    popa.
Hapep,  eece  poeccopa o pe oa oa c aap
ocaoo  ce ec a pae  poo popae.

   Cpe poe.


                                     - 6 -
    6  pepa  21H  -  o  ece   coco   o
ee  co  e oa.  a  e ae xa a pa  e
pacoae Ctrl-Break.  epe  oo  pepa    DL  oo  
oeeo   0FFH.   B  poo  cae    6  c  coepeo
pooooo e -  eaae    ee  o  pcopa  co,
axoc  DL.  a  caaaec  1, ec ep aap
c. Ec co p, o o oeaec  AL. Ko ASCII 0 pe
pacpe  o      oe  oepa oa pepae oo 
oopeo.

           MOV  AH,6           ;oep  DOS
           MOV  DL,0FFH        ;apoc oa c aap
           INT  21H            ;oee coa
           JZ   NO_CHAR        ;epexo ec e coa
           CMP  AL,0           ;poepa a pacpe o
           JE   EXTENDED_CODE  ;ec a, o a ce. poep
           ...                 ;ae  AL o ASCII

EXTENDED_CODE:   INT 21H       ;oae oep pacpeoo oa
                 ...           ;oep oa  AL

                     7. oee cpo coo.

   Cpe poe.

    0AH  pepa  21H  ooe o cpo o o 254
coo,  aa xo  a  epa.  a  poepa  pooae  o
ocax  coo  o  ex  op,  oa  e  aaa  aa opa
ape.  DS:DX aae a apec a,  a oa    oeea
cpoa.  p  xoe  ep  a  o o oe coepa co
ao,  oox  o cpo.  oce  oo  a  cpoa  eea,
opo  a  ac  co  peao  eex  co- o.  Caa cpoa
aaec c peeo aa.
   Hao oec  ocaoo  a    cpo  o  c a
aa  ecpopa  cpo    o  oao  a    opaa
ape.  Koa  B  caaaee  aca  cpo  epo
ae,  o e ae oa 1  opaa  ape.  Ko  opaa
ape  - ASCII 13 - oc a oce co cpo- ,  o o e
aec  peae,  oop    oeae  o  opo  a
ecpopa cpo.  Ta opao,   oe 50-coo cpo
ao oec 53 aa a  oec  ep a ASCII 51.  oce
oa  50  coo  opo a e coepa ASCII 50,  a 53- a
oeeo a - ASCII 13.

;--- ceee ax
STRING   DB   53 DUP(?)     ;oac  cpo 50 coo

;---oee cpo c aap
         LEA  DX,STRING     ;DS:DX aa a apec cpo
         MOV  BX,DX         ;c BX oe aae a cpo
         MOV  AL,51         ;caoa  cpo (+1  CR)
         MOV  [BX],AL       ;ocae  1- a ecpopa
         MOV  AH,0AH        ;oep 
         INT  21H           ;oae cpo
;---poepa  cpo
         MOV  AH,[BX]+1     ;eep a  AH

   B o   poepe  oo  cooa  oooc  peapoa
cpo MS DOS. Haae a ao  "cpea-eo" ae co

                                     - 7 -
c paa,  a ae e oeae eo  a. Paoae a- a a-
,  pacpee o oppc, ce cpo ocac (eec
  opa ape,  oopo e peece poo coa).  Ha
epae p oce paoo pa cpoa epeocc  a  ce
cpo,  a  p  oce  paoo  eo  a pa caec a
cpo epx.  Koa oc oe coo,  e oeeo eca  
cpo, o e co oppc  aec o aa.
   MS DOS oeceae  po coco oe cpo, p oopo e
oc  xo  a  epa.   3FH pepa 21H - o 
oa oeo aae,  oopa ae ceo coec p  cox
oepax.   Oa  pee  peopeeeoo  ecpopa  aa  (file
handle),  oop ec oo  co,  coe  oepaoo
cceo  ooae cpoca oa/oa.  ap co-
ec ecpop 0  o oe  oee  BX.  oece    DS:DX
apec, o oopo oa axoc cpoa, a  CX - aca -
 cpo  oe : ;---ee cpo e xa
   MOV  AH,3FH            ;oep 
   MOV  BX,0              ;oep ecpopa aa
   LEA  DX,STRING_BUFFER  ;aae a ep oa cpo
   MOV  CX,100            ;acaa a cpo
   INT  21H               ;e oa

Bo cpo   aepaec   aae  a  opa  ape    DOS
oae  oe cpo a coa:  opa ape  epeo cpo
(ASCII  13   ASCII 10).  -a x oaox coo,  p aa
 cpo 100 coo oa oe aa o 102 a a.  a
eeo  cpo  opaaec    AX    o  aee  ae  a
coa-opae.

         8. poepa/caoa caca a-epeaee.

   a aa,  pacooee  eax  a  0040:0017    0040:0018
coepa    ,   opaae   cac   a   ca      px
a-epeaee ce opao:

                Kaa      aee, oa  = 1
0040:0017    7     Insert       pe ca e
             6     CapsLock     pe CapsLock e
             5     NumLock      pe NumLock e
             4     ScrollLock   pe ScrollLock e
             3     Alt          aa aaa
             2     Ctrl         aa aaa
             1     e Shift  aa aaa
             0     pa Shift aa aaa

0040:0018    7     Insert       aa aaa
             6     CapsLock     aa aaa
             5     NumLock      aa aaa
             4     ScrollLock   aa aaa
             3     Ctrl-NumLock pe Ctrl-NumLock e
ocae  e coc

   pepae aap  eeeo  ooe    caca,  a
oo e aaa oa  a-epeaee,  ae ec  e  o
cao  ooo coa  epa aap. o epo   a
Ins,  oopa ecea   x  8  a  oeae  o    ep
(caoa  caca  Ins  eec  ae  ec    epe e eca 
coa).  Oe,  o  3 o apec 0040:0018 caaaec  1,
oa ece pe aep Ctrl-NumLock; oco  o coco

                                     - 8 -
popaa pocaoea, o o  ececee.
   pepae aap poepe cocoe cacx o epe e,
a eppepoa aae a,  oo oa  popaa  ee
o    x  o,  o e ao e,  a p eco aa
cooece a. B oee axoe cao cocoe a
NumLock  CapsLock,  o  e- pe,  o o e peeoo
a.  Haoopo,  Baa popaa oe ac  e caca  x
a,  apep    oo,  o  ec  e cac a pa.
Oe,  o aapa AT pao caaae ceoe aop
coco a, ae ec epee popao.

   Cpe poe.

    2  pepa  16H peocae oc  oo - o oo
oo -  ao caca.  o  a  o  apec  0040:0017,  oop
coep oe oeo opa. a opaaec  AL.

;---poepa caca a ca
   MOV  AH,2           ;oep 
   INT  16H            ;oae a caca
   TEST AL,10000000B   ;poepe  7
   JZ   INSERT_OFF     ;ec 0, o INSERT e

   H poe.

   B ao pepe caaaec pe ca,  a ce ca- o
a 7 aa  caca  o  apec  0040:0017  (oop  apecec  a
0000:0417).

   SUB  AX,AX            ;caaae oao cee a
   MOV  ES,AX            ;aao a
   MOV  AL,10000000B     ;oo  7  caoe
   OR   ES:[417H],AL     ;ee a caca

    9. Hacae poep  oa  c aap oeo aae.

   Ccea oo,  coex  aapo,  e   oaec   poco
pepea.  Ko  o  e  1  2 aa  e poco- o
cooec e o oa  e,  c  o   ooa-  e
coa   pae oopoae. He ce oa a ae
a a o,  oo  eoxo  oaoe  c,  o
pa x.  H o ASCII,   pacpee o e opoe a
opao,  oop  oo x poc ppo  poep oo.
p  coa,  poepa  oa  c  a-  ap oeo aae
pee xoooo popapoa.

   Cpe poe.

   o pep oaec o peeo eoo pacoaa  epex
acx cae Ctrl-H,  -I, -M  -[. ec, oa cae opoc o o,
o  aa o p aa oo a,    oa  c
ae  Ctrl,  poepec ca-o.  o eo oee pae,  e
poepa  a  caca,  a  a  ca-o  aoaec      epe
aap, a caoa a caca oe  eea.

;---oee oa aao a  opeeee eo a
NEXT:  MOV  AH,0           ; oa c aap BIOS
       INT  16H            ;oae ee o
       CMP  AL,0           ;poepa a pacpe o

                                     - 9 -
       JE   EXTENDED_CODE  ;ec a, o a ce. poep
       CMP  AL,32          ;poepa a pa co
       JL   CONTROL_CODE   ;ec a, o a ce. poep
       CMP  AL,65          ;ec co e xo  aop -
       JL   NEXT           ;e a, o epe ce
       CMP  AL,123         ;
       JL   NEXT           ;
;---eep opaaae co  AL
       STOSB               ;aoae co o apec ES:DI
       MOV  AH,2           ; oa coa a pa
       MOV  DL,AL          ;oeae co  DL epe oo
       INT  21H            ;o eo a pa
        .
        .
       JMP  NEXT           ;epexo  cee co
;---aape pae o
CONTROL_CODE:  CMP  AL,13       ;o ASCII 13?
               JNE  TAB         ;ec e, o ce. poepa
               CMP  AH,28       ;ae poepe ca-o 
               JNE  C_M         ;ec e, o o Ctrl-M
               CALL CARRIAGE_RET;opaoa opaa ape
               JMP  NEXT        ;epexo  cee co
C_M:           CALL CTRL_M      ;opaoa Ctrl-M
               JMP  NEXT        ;epexo  cee co
TAB:           CMP  AL,9        ;poepa a a...
                .
                .
               CMP  AL,10       ;ae poepa px
                .
                .
REJECT:        JMP  NEXT        ;epexo  cee co
;---aa pacpex oo (2- a oa  AH):
EXTENDED_CODE: CMP  AH,71       ;poepa e pa
               JL   REJECT      ;ec ee, o ce. co
               CMP  AH,81       ;poepa epxe pa
               JL   REJECT      ;ec oe, o ce. co
;---AH coep co pae pcopo, aape eo:
               CMP  AH,72       ;"pcop-epx"?
               JE   C_U         ;ec a, o a poep
               CMP  AH,80       ;"pcop-"?
               JE   C_D         ;ec a, o a poep
                .
                .
C_U:           CALL CURSOR_UP   ;o cooece poep
               JMP  NEXT        ;epexo  cee co
C_D:           CALL CURSOR_DOWN ;o cooece poep
               JMP  NEXT        ;epexo  cee co

            10. epepopapoae pepa aap.

   Koa popoeccop  aap  oeae   ca-o      op   A
pocxe 8255 (apec opa 60H - c. [1.1.1]), o p o aec
pepae 9. aaa oo pepa - peopaoa ca-o coa,
ocoac a coco a-epeaee,  oec eo  ep
aap.  (Ec ca-o cooece ae-epeae,  o  
ep  aap  e  ec  eo,  a  cee ca a
<Ins>,  a eco oo pepae ee a caca, pacooee
  oac  ax BIOS.  pepa "oa c aap" DOS  BIOS a
cao ee ceo  pepa "oa  epa aap". Ha cao

                                     - 10 -
ee o e pacoa aa a. Toee, o a eppea
eex a,  oop oeceo pepae 9. ae- , o PCjr
coe  cea poep (INT 48H)  peopaoa oa o
eo 62 a  83-ao pooo,  coeo p IBM PC.
Pea  o  poep  epeaec pepa 9,  oopoe oe
co pao a oo.  B pepa  aap  oo  e  p
ocox aa:
   1. poa ca-o  oca aape oepa ca.
   2. peopaoa ca-o  oep  oa      cao  oecpa
caca a-epeaee.
   3. oec o a  ep aap.
   B oe oa pepa ca-o  e  axoc    ope  A.
oo  caaa  ao  o o poa  coxpa a cee.  ae
coec  op  B  (apec  61H),  o   cpo   oca   ca
oepe popoeccop aap.  Hao poco cao-  
7  1, a ae cpa e eo aa  0. ae, o  6 opa B
pae cao aco aap. O cea oe  caoe 
1,  ae aapa e ea.   apeca opo pe   
AT, xo o  e ee pocxe epeca c epepe 8255.
   Caaa ca-o aapec a  pee  oo,  a    aa
aaa (o aa)  oea (o ocooe).  Ha cex aax,
poe AT,  o ocooe pec caoo a 7 ca-oa  
1.  AT,  oopoo  7 cea pae 0, o ocooe coco 
x ao:  caaa 0F0H,  a ae ca-o.  Bce  o  ocooe
opacac,   poe  ca  a-  -epeaee,    oopx
eac cooece ee-    aax  x  caca.  C  po
copo,  ce  o  aa  opa-  aac.  p  o o o
ec a caca a- -epeaee.  B cae e co-
x oo,  ao poep a caca,  o opee,  apep,
o ca-o 30 cooece e  epxe pecp  A.
   oce oo  a ee co epoa,  poepa oa c
aap oa a cooec e o ASCII    pacpe
o.  pee  pep  co  opoo,  o  pac-  cope ce
ca.  B oe  cae  ca-o  coocac  eea  a
ax,  oopa  aapec  cpe XLAT.  XLAT pae  AL
co o 0 o 255,  a opaae  AL 1-aoe aee  256-ao
a,  a  oop  aae  DS:BX.  Taa  oe  axoc  
ceee ax. Ec  AL axoc ca-o 30, o a e oee
 a a oep 30 (31- a, a a oce aaec c ).
o a  ae oe  caoe pa 97,  aa o  ASCII
  "a".  Koeo    oe aao A a pa aa,  
oopo opaee e pocxo, ec cac ca caoe. 
aae    o  xpac  po ac o e a,  o 
o cae  ca-o ao e oa ceee,  opee-  eoe
caco a-epeaee.
   Haoe, oepa oo  o    oee    ep  aap.
poepa  oa  caaa  poep,  eec     epe eco 
ceeo coa. B [3.1.1] oaao, o o ep cpoe a -
eca  oepe.  ea  a  0040:001A  coep  aa- e a
oo epa,  a 0040:001C - aae a xoc.  coe aae
a ceee  oac ax BIOS (oopa aaec  ceee 40H)
 axoc  aaoe o 30 o 60. Hoe co cac  e
epa c oee cap ape- ca, a oa oca epx paa,
o ce co epeocc     oe  epa.  Koa  ep
oo,  o  aa-  e xoca a 2 ee aae a oo - poe
ca, oa aae a oo pae 30 (aao oac epa), a 
o cae ep oo, oa aae xoca pae 60.
    ca coa   ep,  ao  oec  eo    o,  a
oop aae xoc epa  ae e aae xoca a 2;

                                     - 11 -
ec aae xoca  pae 60,  o ao e eo  aee  a
30. Bo  ce. Cxea pepa aap oaaa a pc. 3-4.

   H poe.

   ea poepa pee ooo poa. B o pepe
a oo cae aa.  O  pae  oo    a  e  
epxe pecpax,  pe ce o ape  o a,   oopo
 epxeo pecpa axoc a 100  a  e,  e  x  ae
pa.  Aapec  oo ea aa ca  eee cocoe
a CapsLock oppec.

;--- ceee ax
TABLE   DB   16 DUP(0)            ;pocae 1-e 16 a
        DB   'qwertyuiop',0,0,0,0 ;epx p aap
        DB   'asdfghjkl',0,0,0,0,0 ;cpe p aap
        DB   'zxcvbnm'            ; p aap
        DB   16 DUP(0)            ;poc o epxeo pecpa
        DB   'QWERTYUIOP',0,0,0,0 ;e e co a epxe
        DB   'ASDFGHJKL',0,0,0,0,0 ;pecpe
        DB   'ZXCVBNM'            ;
;--- aae popa caaae pepae
        CLI                       ;ape pepa
        PUSH DS                   ;coxpae pecp
        MOV  AX,SEG NEW_KEYBOARD  ;DS:DX o aa a
        MOV  DS,AX                ;poep opao
        MOV  DX,OFFSET NEW_KEYBOARD ;pepa
        MOV  AL,9                 ;oep eopa pepa
        MOV  AH,25H               ;oep  DOS
        INT  21H                  ;ee eop pepa
        POP  DS                   ;occaaae pecp
        STI                       ;papeae pepa

popaa pooaec, ae ocaac peeo [1.3.4].

;---o cao pepae aap
NEW_KEYBOARD  PROC FAR         ;coxpae ce eee
              PUSH AX          ;pecp
              PUSH BX          ;
              PUSH CX          ;
              PUSH DI          ;
              PUSH ES          ;
;---oae ca-o  ocae ca oepe
   IN   AL,60H         ;oae ca-o  opa A
   MOV  AH,AL          ;oeae o  AH
   PUSH AX             ;coxpae ca-o
   IN   AL,61H         ;ae cocoe opa B
   OR   AL,10000000B   ;caaae  7
   OUT  61H,AL         ;ocae ee a  op
   AND  AL,01111111B   ;cpacae  7
   OUT  61H,AL         ;opaae cocoe opa B
;---ES oe aa a oac ax BIOS
   MOV  AX,40H         ;caaae cee
   MOV  ES,AX          ;
   POP  AX             ;opaae ca-o  cea
;---poepa a ca
         CMP  AL,42          ;aa e c?
         JNE  KEY_UP         ;e - cop ceee
         MOV  BL,1           ;a - ee  caca

                                     - 12 -
         OR   ES:[17H],BL    ;ee po pecp caca
         JMP  QUIT           ;xo  poep
KEY_UP:  CMP  AL,170         ;e c oe?
         JNE  NEXTKEY        ;e - cop ceee
         MOV  BL,11111110B   ;a - ee  caca
         AND  ES:[17H],BL    ;ee po pecp caca
         JMP  QUIT           ;xo  poep
NEXTKEY:                     ;pocop px epeaee
;---o coa aa - eppepe ca-o
             TEST AL,10000000B  ;o ocooe a?
             JNZ  QUIT          ;a - xo  poep
             MOV  BL,ES:[17H]   ;ae epe a caca
             TEST BL,00000011B  ;aa ca aaa?
             JZ   CONVERT_CODE  ;e - xo ae
             ADD  AL,100        ;a - a aaa a
CONVERT_CODE:  MOV  BX,OFFSET TABLE  ;oo a
             XLAT TABLE         ;peopae ca-o  ASCII
             CMP  AL,0          ;opae 0?
             JE   QUIT          ;ec a, o a xo
;---o a oo, poepe e oo  ep aap
             MOV  BX,1AH        ;ceee aae a oo
             MOV  CX,ES:[BX]    ;oae eo aee
             MOV  DI,ES:[BX]+2  ;oae aae xoca
             CMP  CX,60         ;ooa a epe epa?
             JE   HIGH_END      ;a - epexo  ce. ca
             INC  CX            ;eae aae oo
             INC  CX            ;a 2
             CMP  CX,DI         ;cpaae c aaee xoca
             JE   QUIT          ;ec pa, o ep oo
             JMP  GO_AHEAD      ;ae cae co
HIGH_END:    CMP  DI,30         ;poepa ce. ca
             JE   QUIT          ;ec ep oo, o xo
;---ep e oo - cae  eo co
GO_AHEAD:    MOV  ES:[DI],AL    ;oeae co  o xoca
             CMP  DI,60         ;xoc  oe epa?
             JNE  NO_WRAP       ;ec e, o oae 2
             MOV  DI,28         ;ae aae xoca = 28+2
NO_WRAP:     ADD  DI,2          ;oae ooe aee xoca
             MOV  ES:[BX]+2,DI  ;ocae eo  oac ax
;---aepee pepa
QUIT:        POP  ES            ;occaaae eee
             POP  DI            ;pecp
             POP  CX            ;
             POP  BX            ;
             POP  AX            ;
             MOV  AL,20H        ;ae ca o ooa
             OUT  20H,AL        ;aapaoo pepa
             IRET               ;opa  pepa
NEW_KEYBOARD ENDP


              11. epepopapoae oex a.

   o epepopapoae a  oaec  coco  aca  ee
aa  po o.  Ho  o pee,  oa popaa oae o
aao a, pepae aap e poeppe- poao xo-
 ca-o  peopaoao eo  eoop apa- ee peopeee
o ASCII  pacpe o.  K cac, aa c MS DOS epc 2.0,
ccea  coep  cpeca  epepopapoa a.  o cpeco

                                     - 13 -
ece oo ec o ocpaec epe    DOS  oa  c
aap  -    pepa BIOS 16H pooa eppepoa
aa a opa opao.
   epepopapoae oco   a   ce   Esc-oceoaeoce.
Kopoa  cpoa,  oopa  aaec  c  coa  Esc   (ASCII   27),
peaaaec  oa a "caapoe cpoco oa",  .e. a
epa.  Ho aoap a oa  Esc  co  ae  e  oca
oopa.  Beco  oo  aa  cpoa  acae  MS  DOS o po
eppepoa a,  aa  o  cpoe.  Kaoe  eee
a  pee  coceo cpo,  p o o  o e o oe
pcaac ao oo oec a.
   O  ao cpo ao:  oa aaec c oa Esc (ASCII 27),
a oop e [,  ae oep oa  epeopeeeo  a,  ae
oa c ao (;), ae o oep oa, pcaa- e ae ,
aoe,  co p.  Ta opao, cpoa 27,'[65;97p' ee A (ASCII
65)  a  a (ASCII 97).  Pacpee o acac c aae oox
ao,  pe a ep e ao o co oa c ao.
Cpoa 27,'[0;68;0;83p' pcaae ae F10 (0;68) o e o,  o
 ae Delete (0;83). B oee pcaa oo pacpee o,
peee  ae pacpex oo [3.3.5].
   eec ecoo apao ocoo a  cpo.  Bo-ep-  x,
coe  a  o  ooaac ca coo,  ae 
a.  Ta opao,  cpoa 27,'["A";"a"p' ae ee  A  a  a.
Bo-opx  ae oe  pcoea ea cpo- a coo,  e
aa  coo    x  oox  oepo      pae.   Cpoa
27,'["A";"A is for Apple"p' pee  o, o p aa a a
A  epxe pecpe,  e eaac c cpoa A is for Apple.  Ha
cao  ee   Esc-oceoaeoc - eo oee,  e cpo,  
oopx  ep  o    co   aae   a   a   o
epeopee,  a  ocaac ac cpo aae aoe aee B
xoe e  pa.  oe,  o  oepa  oo  o    cea
paee  oo  c  ao,  a  co ae  a.  Ko 
co o  epeea  x coeax.   oo o ae
epeopeee a  oo, eoxoo o paep ANSI.SYS
 ape p ape  oepaoo  cce.  B  poo  cae
Esc-oceoa- eoc  oppoac.

   Cpe poe.

   coe    9   pepa   21H    oc  cpo  a
caapoe cpoco oa.  DS:DX o aa a ep co
cpo  a  cpoa oa aepac coo $ (24H).  ec F2
(0;60) epeopeeec a opao,  o oa ecoaa  a  Del
(0;83).

;--- ceee ax
CHANGE_KEY   DB   27,'[0;60;0;83p$'

;--- ee opeee a
   LEA  DX,CHANGE_KEY       ;DS:DX o aa a cpo
   MOV  AH,9                ;oep 
   INT  21H                 ;epeopeeee a

                    12. Coa aa ca-oo.

   Kaa aa eeppe a a ca-oo, "o aa" - oa
aa aaec,   "o ocooe" - oa aa  ocaec.
 cex a,  poe AT,  o ocooe a 128 oe oa aa
( 7 = 1).  Ta opao aa T coae o 20 p aa   o

                                     - 14 -
148 p oca.  AT coe o   e eo o  oo
aa  ocooe,  o o ocooe coco   x  ao,
ep    oopx cea pae 0F0H.  PCjr ee cea ca-o
o a, oep 55. o o opoaec, oa  oopeeo
aa  p   oee a,  o ooae ea oo p oe.
pepae aap opacae o o  o  e  caec    c
a oo ASCII  pacpe oo.
                      Ka e a

   Kaa Ko aa  Kaa Ko aa  Kaa Ko aa

     "1"       2          "T"        20        "L"       38
     "2"       3          "Y"        21        ";"       39
     "3"       4          "U"        22        "'"       40
     "4"       5          "I"        23        "`"       41
     "5"       6          "O"        24        "\"       43
     "6"       7          "P"        25        "Z"       44
     "7"       8          "["        26        "X"       45
     "8"       9          "]"        27        "C"       46
     "9"       10         "A"        30        "V"       47
     "0"       11         "S"        31        "B"       48
     "-"       12         "D"        32        "N"       49
     "="       13         "F"        33        "M"       50
     "Q"       16         "G"        34        ","       51
     "W"       17         "H"        35        "."       52
     "E"       18         "J"        36        "/"       53
     "R"       19         "K"        37      poe      57

                        pae a

   Esc - 1               Ctrl - 29           Alt - 56
   BackSpace - 14        left shift - 42     CapsLock - 58
   Tab - 15              right shift - 42    NumLock - 58
   Enter - 28            PrtSc - 55          ScrollLock - 70

                       oae a

   F1 - 59               F5 - 63             F9 - 67
   F2 - 60               F6 - 64             F10 - 68
   F3 - 61               F7 - 65
   F4 - 62               F8 - 66

                 Ka ooeo aap

   "7" - 71           "5" - 76            "3" - 81
   "8" - 72           "6" - 77            "0" - 82
   "9" - 73           "+" - 78            "." - 83
   "-" - 74           "1" - 79      Sys Req - 132 (oo AT)
   "4" - 75           "2" - 80       a - 55 (oo PCjr)
                    13. Coa aa oo ASCII

   o o ASCII o 1 o 255 oe   ee  c  aap,  ec
epa  aao  a  Alt p aope oepa oa a ooeo
aape (c  cooeceo  caoe  peo  NumLock).  Koa
aa Alt ae ocooaec, o o oc.

Co  10-  16-p  o  Co  10-  16-p  o

(null)     0        00     00000000     0      48       30      00110000

                                     - 15 -
           1        01     00000001     1      49       31      00110001
           2        02     00000010     2      50       32      00110010
           3        03     00000011     3      51       33      00110011
           4        04     00000100     4      52       34      00110100
           5        05     00000101     5      53       35      00110101
           6        06     00000110     6      54       36      00110110
           7        07     00000111     7      55       37      00110111
           8        08     00001000     8      56       38      00111000
           9        09     00001001     9      57       39      00111001
          10        0A     00001010     :      58       3A      00111010
          11        0B     00001011     ;      59       3B      00111011
          12        0C     00001100     <      60       3C      00111100
          13        0D     00001101     =      61       3D      00111101
          14        0E     00001110     >      62       3E      00111110
          15        0F     00001111     ?      63       3F      00111111
          16        10     00010000     @      64       40      01000000
          17        11     00010001     A      65       41      01000001
          18        12     00010010     B      66       42      01000010
          19        13     00010011     C      67       43      01000011
          20        14     00010100     D      68       44      01000100
          21        15     00010101     E      69       45      01000101
          22        16     00010110     F      70       46      01000110
          23        17     00010111     G      71       47      01000111
          24        18     00011000     H      72       48      01001000
          25        19     00011001     I      73       49      01001001
          26        1A     00011010     J      74       4A      01001010
          27        1B     00011011     K      75       4B      01001011
          28        1C     00011100     L      76       4C      01001100
          29        1D     00011101     M      77       4D      01001101
          30        1E     00011110     N      78       4E      01001110
          31        1F     00011111     O      79       4F      01001111
poe    32        20     00100000     P      80       50      01010000
  !       33        21     00100001     Q      81       51      01010001
  "       34        22     00100010     R      82       52      01010010
  #       35        23     00100011     S      83       53      01010011
  $       36        24     00100100     T      84       54      01010100
  %       37        25     00100101     U      85       55      01010101
  &       38        26     00100110     V      86       56      01010110
  '       39        27     00100111     W      87       57      01010111
  (       40        28     00101000     X      88       58      01011000
  )       41        29     00101001     Y      89       59      01011001
  *       42        2A     00101010     Z      90       5A      01011010
  +       43        2B     00101011     [      91       5B      01011011
  ,       44        2C     00101100     \      92       5C      01011100
  -       45        2D     00101101     ]      93       5D      01011101
  .       46        2E     00101110     ^      94       5E      01011110
  /       47        2F     00101111     _      95       5F      01011111
Co  10-  16-p  o  Co  10-  16-p  o

  `       96        60     01100000          153       99      10011001
  a       97        61     01100001          154       9A      10011010
  b       98        62     01100010          155       9B      10011011
  c       99        63     01100011          156       9C      10011100
  d      100        64     01100100          157       9D      10011101
  e      101        65     01100101          158       9E      10011110
  f      102        66     01100110          159       9F      10011111
  g      103        67     01100111     a     160       A0      10100000
  h      104        68     01101000          161       A1      10100001
  i      105        69     01101001          162       A2      10100010

                                     - 16 -
  j      106        6A     01101010          163       A3      10100011
  k      107        6B     01101011          164       A4      10100100
  l      108        6C     01101100     e     165       A5      10100101
  m      109        6D     01101101          166       A6      10100110
  n      110        6E     01101110          167       A7      10100111
  o      111        6F     01101111          168       A8      10101000
  p      112        70     01110000          169       A9      10101001
  q      113        71     01110001          170       AA      10101010
  r      114        72     01110010          171       AB      10101011
  s      115        73     01110011          172       AC      10101100
  t      116        74     01110100          173       AD      10101101
  u      117        75     01110101     o     174       AE      10101110
  v      118        76     01110110          175       AF      10101111
  w      119        77     01110111          176       B0      10110000
  x      120        78     01111000          177       B1      10110001
  y      121        79     01111001          178       B2      10110010
  z      122        7A     01111010          179       B3      10110011
  {      123        7B     01111011          180       B4      10110100
  |      124        7C     01111100          181       B5      10110101
  }      125        7D     01111101          182       B6      10110110
  ~      126        7E     01111110          183       B7      10110111
         127        7F     01111111          184       B8      10111000
  A      128        80     10000000          185       B9      10111001
        129        81     10000001          186       BA      10111010
  B      130        82     10000010          187       BB      10111011
        131        83     10000011          188       BC      10111100
        132        84     10000100          189       BD      10111101
  E      133        85     10000101          190       BE      10111110
        134        86     10000110          191       BF      10111111
        135        87     10000111          192       C0      11000000
        136        88     10001000          193       C1      11000001
        137        89     10001001          194       C2      11000010
  K      138        8A     10001010          195       C3      11000011
        139        8B     10001011          196       C4      11000100
  M      140        8C     10001100          197       C5      11000101
  H      141        8D     10001101          198       C6      11000110
  O      142        8E     10001110          199       C7      11000111
        143        8F     10001111          200       C8      11001000
  P      144        90     10010000          201       C9      11001001
  C      145        91     10010001          202       CA      11001010
  T      146        92     10010010          203       CB      11001011
        147        93     10010011          204       CC      11001100
        148        94     10010100          205       CD      11001101
  X      149        95     10010101          206       CE      11001110
        150        96     10010110          207       CF      11001111
        151        97     10010111          208       D0      11010000
        152        98     10011000          209       D1      11010001
Co  10-  16-p  o  Co  10-  16-p  o

        210        D2     11010010          233       E9      11101001
        211        D3     11010011          234       EA      11101010
        212        D4     11010100          235       EB      11101011
        213        D5     11010101          236       EC      11101100
        214        D6     11010110          237       ED      11101101
        215        D7     11010111          238       EE      11101110
        216        D8     11011000          239       EF      11101111
        217        D9     11011001     E     240       F0      11110000
        218        DA     11011010     e     241       F1      11110001
        219        DB     11011011          242       F2      11110010

                                     - 17 -
        220        DC     11011100          243       F3      11110011
        221        DD     11011101          244       F4      11110100
        222        DE     11011110          245       F5      11110101
        223        DF     11011111          246       F6      11110110
  p      224        E0     11100000          247       F7      11110111
  c      225        E1     11100001          248       F8      11111000
        226        E2     11100010          249       F9      11111001
        227        E3     11100011          250       FA      11111010
        228        E4     11100100          251       FB      11111011
  x      229        E5     11100101          252       FC      11111100
        230        E6     11100110          253       FD      11111101
        231        E7     11100111          254       FE      11111110
        232        E8     11101000           255       FF      11111111
         14. Coa oo ceopa  ocpoe pao.

   He pee    oca  oepo  oo  ASCII,    coo
ceopa, coex p ocpoe   pao.

  218       194      191           213      209      184
                                                 

    195       197      180           198      216      181
                                                

                            179
                                                 
  192       193      217           212      207      190

               196                            205

  214       210      183           201      203      187
                                                 

    199       215      182           204      206      185
                                                

                            186
                                                 
  211       208      189           200      202      188
                15. Coa aa pacpex oo.

aee 2-o aa     Cooece a

   15                   Shift + Tab ("back-tab")
   16-25                Alt-Q - Alt-P (epx p )
   30-38                Alt-A - Alt-L (cpe p )
   44-50                Alt-Z - Alt-M ( p )
   59-68                oae a F1 - F10
   71                   Home
   72                   Cursor-up (cpea epx)
   73                   PgUp
   75                   Cursor-left (cpea eo)
   77                   Cursor-right (cpea pao)
   79                   End
   80                   Cursor-down (cpea )
   81                   PgDn
   82                   Ins
   83                   Del
   84-93                F1-F10 + Shift

                                     - 18 -
   94-103               F1-F10 + Ctrl
   104-113              F1-F10 + Alt
   114                  Ctrl + PrtSc
   115                  Ctrl + Cursor-left
   116                  Ctrl + Cursor-right
   117                  Ctrl + End
   118                  Ctrl + PgDn
   119                  Ctrl + Home
   120-131              Alt + 1 - Alt + = (epx p)
   132                  Ctrl + PgUp
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